Technologie

 

Part C: "Charging infrastructure analysis". 2

1        Introduction. 3

1.1        Objective. 3

1.2        Methodology. 5

2        Standardization of the technical charging infrastructure. 5

2.1        European background. 5

2.1.1        Initiatives to reach international eRoaming. 7

2.2        State-of-the-art for the plugs and connectors. 8

2.2.1        AC and DC charging. 9

2.2.2        Charging stations for electric vehicles. 12

2.2.3        Charging systems. 13

2.2.4        Communication between EV and E-CS: 14

2.2.5        Plug/Connectors. 14

2.3        Tendencies. 18

2.3.1        Vehicle-to-grid technology. 18

2.3.2        Smart charging. 18

2.3.3        The development of ultra-fast charging E-CS. 19

2.3.4        The development of inductive charging. 20

3        The development of a robust roaming infrastructure. 21

3.1        Roaming and interoperability. 21

3.2        The development of interroaming. 22

3.2.1        The Pan-European initiative. 22

3.2.2        The Open Fast Charging Alliance initiative. 23

3.3        Identification and billing systems. 23

4        E-CS network development in the Alpine Space. 25

4.1        Number and kind of E-CS installed in the Alpine Space region. 25

4.2        Interoperability levels of the installed E-CS in the Alpine Space. 26

4.3        Comments on the deployment of the charging infrastructure in the Alpine Space countries. 28

4.3.1        Austria. 28

4.3.2        France. 28

4.3.3        Germany. 29

4.3.4        Italy. 29

4.3.5        Liechtenstein. 29

4.3.6        Slovenia. 29

4.3.7        Switzerland. 29

5        Conclusion. 30

6        Bibliography. 32

7        Glossary. 34

Appendix  35

This project is co-financed by the
European Regional Development Fund
through the Interreg Alpine Space programme.